And the flora and fauna living on,
and above, the emerging continent, were about to be
tried and tested. For the whole area was going through
a gradual, but dramatic metamorphosis. Alphaland was
about to incubate the first, and probably the largest
swamp, too ever exist. The flora and fauna of this
time and place in history had but one advantage, one
great advantage, they had a long, long time to adjust
to the dramatic changes that were taking place on
their World.

The Alphaland Swamp was where a fish first used its
fins to crawl through shallow water. And where, when
cattails, ferns and other plants grew thick, and
stagnate land locked pools full of rotting vegetation
became the norm, oxygen starved fish survived by
gulping air at the water’s surface. Until eventually,
more than one specie of these ancestral fish developed
lungs, which enabled them to breath out of water.

And the Alphaland Swamp was also where, as the area
became higher and drier, that the fins of crawling fish
evolved into feet. Thereby allowing animals to pull
themselves from one shallow water hole to another.
And breathing, crawling animals, inhabited the land.

Some of the ancient forms of lungfish, have changed
very little since they first evolved in Alpha Swamp,
and thrive in a variety of ecosystems today. Other
animals, which developed lungs, and four legs,
crawled from the swamp and rapidly evolved into a
myriad of different species. They became the
amphibians. And were the masters of their universe,
for the next eon.

There is no doubt, most of the lands on Earth today,
except for the Ring Mountains, rose above the oceans
just before, or during the Amphibian Era. Actually the
settling of the ocean depths, the mid oceanic ridges,
drained a great deal of water from the continents.

Some continents, like Antarctica, actually gave up land
during this Era. The north edge of the Antarctic Plate
tilted down with the Atlantic-Indian Ocean and East
Indian Ocean Ridges, and allowed water to encroach upon
the Antarctica Continent. Africa tilted to the south
and east and ceded some land back to the ocean. South
America lost considerable area when it tilted down
toward the south and west. But on the total land mass
grew considerable during the Amphibian Era.

The Glacier Girdle and Ring Mountains were at least
periodically globally in tack. And there was
sufficient inhabitable land bordering the entire Ring
Mountain Range that both flora and fauna were able to
freely circle the globe. And circle the globe they did.

The following article from "BBC News," is just one of
many articles you can easily find which will testify
to this fact. Many Scientists have found reason to
believe that Antarctica was once connected by a land
bridge to South America, and by another land bridge
to Australia.

Thursday, February 5, 1998  Sci/Tech

Frozen dinosaur backs Antarctic land-bridge theory.

The fossilized remains of a duck-billed dinosaur and an ancient
bird have been found in Antarctica, boosting theories that the
continent was once linked to modern day America. Scientists
from the US and Argentina say the 70 million year old fossils
are the first of their kind to be found on the continent.

The fossils were discovered early last week [note above
article date] on Vega Island south of Argentina on the
Antarctic Peninsula.

Researchers found part of a four-centimeter long (two inches)
bird claw and a tooth from a juvenile hadrosaur, a duck-billed
dinosaur. The creatures are similar to other finds in North
and South America.

The discovery supports theories that North America, Australia
and Antarctica had a land bridge, say scientists from
Argentina's National Antarctic Institute.

One theory is that marsupials originated in the Americas and
traveled over what is now frozen Antarctica to Australia, where
they flourished.

Previous expeditions to Antarctica have uncovered evidence of
water-based creatures but the hadrosaur is the first evidence
of a land-based creature.

"The dig was financed by the US National Science Foundation,
the Antarctic Institute and St. Mary's College in California."

If there was concurrently a land bridge between
Australia and China, and many Scientists believe there
was, and let me assure you, there were at least
periodically, then the waters of the Pacific and
Atlantic oceans, were effectively separated. Note, the
passage way through the Arctic Ocean had yet to

Of all the Scientists that have suggested
that one, or both, of these land bridges existed, none
that I know of ever mentioned what an enormous effect
one such land bridge, would have on the climatic
conditions on Earth. Even if the Earth rotated like it
does now, either land bridge would have brought about
unpredictable, but definitely species extinguishing,
climatic changes.

If both were to rise, in a short period of time,
it would probably bring about a major, extinction.
If it was to happen today, many people would find
survival impossible. Civilization would undoubtedly
survive, for the heart of man is resilient, but many
would parish. And live would be harsh, at least for
a time.

Scientists could not have determined what the climatic
conditions were really like in Antarctica so many,
years ago. But they should have known that the land
bridges they were advocating, would have drastically
changed the climatic conditions, and addressed the
possible consequences of those changes in their reports.

What do you suppose the odds are against the Earth’s
continents lining up in such a manner, that they
circumvent the World, and with land bridges connecting
them, divide the Earth’s waters, just by coincidence?

And what do you suppose the odds are against, anyone
formulating a story, which does not invoke magic, yet
explains the positions of the continents and the
bridges, and that story be untrue?

Scientists believe that the continents on Earth, are
being haphazardly moved around over the Globe. That
some omnipotent, unmotivated, unconscious force,
Devil, dwelling inside the Earth is not only moving
the continents around like so many rafts in a hurricane.
But is slowly subducting portions of the Crustal Plate,
along with an occasional continent, down into the fiery
depths of Hell to be devoured.

The moronic theory of Continental Drift was first hatched
back in the latter part of the nineteenth century, when
people noticed that the Eastern Coasts of North and South
America were vaguely congruent with the West Coasts of
Europe and Africa.

Then in 1912, a German meteorologist named Alfred
Wegener [1880-1930] formally proposed that perhaps all
the Earth's land had once been connected into one
super-continent, which had been ripped apart, and was
now drifting asunder. But although Wegener argued
valiantly for his theory, he never saw it gain any
significant acceptance. The majority of scientists
steadfastly refused to even seriously consider the
theory for many years, because there simply was no
known mechanism powerful enough, to possibly be
accredited with shuffling continents around.

Then in 1930, Arthur Holmes (1890-1965) suggested
that convectional currents, currents generated by
heat and thermal expansion within the Earth's mantle,
could possibly force the continents apart, or toward
one another. He further suggested that said touring
continents might be responsible for creating the ocean
floors and building mountain ranges while on their treks.
Though Holmes was already a widely respected geologist,
like Wegener, he saw little attention paid to his ideas.

Floating continents was a hard sell to anyone, who had
any horse sense. And Holmes had warned that his ideas
were purely speculative and could have no scientific
value until they acquired solid support from
independent evidence. Nevertheless, his theory had
acquired a small sect of dedicated disciples, long
before the
smoking gun was discovered which,
supposedly, proved the Theory of Continental Drift.

The steps scientists, namely Allen Cox, Richard Doell
and associates, laid out, which supposedly proved
Continental Drift, were reminiscent of the steps took
to conclude that there were dinosaurs on Venus.

According to Doctor Carl Sagan, their folly strayed in something
like this manner.

1. We can’t see a thing on Venus, because it’s totally covered
with heavy clouds.

2. Since clouds are made up of water, its obvious Venus is a
much wetter planet than Earth.

3. And if Venus is that much wetter than Earth, then it has to
be a very humid, swampy planet.

4. And any very humid and swampy place likely has giant ferns,
huge moss covered trees, and perhaps cycads, dragonflies and
even dinosaurs.

The very idea that there might be dinosaurs flourishing on
Venus today sounds absolutely absurd. We know those deadly
clouds surrounding Venus are not rain clouds, and that the
temperatures there far exceed the upper limits for any kind
of life, that we have found. The people who conjured up and
believed this theory, undoubtedly had their judgments
skewed, because they wanted to believe that their sister
planet was inhabited by, something. And the fact that it
made excellent press undoubtedly expedited the theory’s
Worldwide distribution and acceptance.

But the people who conjured up this story, and believed it,
were not ignorant. Not by a long shot, they were the same
folks who invented the automobile, the airplane, your
grandmother’s wash machine, and thousands of the other
gadgets that make up the very foundation of the easy life
you inherited. Yet, when they started assuming, and
putting one assumption on top of another assumption,
they failed to even get passed the first step,
before they fell flat on their faces.

Do you suppose, had we never been able to acquire any
information from Venus, except what we can see through
our telescopes that we would still be agog with the
prospect of dinosaurs roaming around under the Venusian
clouds? Well, we need not argue a moot hypothetical, but,
if history means anything, people wanted to believe there
were dinosaurs on Venus, and habitually we would have
whole heartedly supported the belief, and passed it from
generation to generation, for hundreds of years, if it
had taken that long to disprove the theory.

It is easy to equate the Theory of Continental Drift to
the Theory of Dinosaurs on Venus. Both rest, or rested
on a platform of assumptions. We have already dissected
and can clearly see the fatal flaws in the Theory of
Dinosaurs on Venus. For the most part it is the age old
story; of people believing exactly what they wanted to

Now, let us take a closer look at the Theory of
Continental Drift. The aforementioned premises that
elevated Continental Drift from a screwy theory to
being accepted as a reality are:

[1] The Magnetic Poles alternating orientations were accepted as fact.

2] The zebra strips, paralleling the mid-oceanic ridges, record those

[3] And proved the sea floors are spreading.                          

[4] If the sea floors are spreading, then the continents have to be   
to be drifting.

As stated at the onset of this recap, there will be no
real attempt made here to prove that the Theory of
Continental Drift is a bunch of malarkey. My intention
is to only briefly address those absurdities being
taught in our schools which most blatantly deny the truth,
the real History of our Earth.

The assumption that the magnetic north orientation may
periodically switch from the North Axle Pole to the
South Axle Pole has never been proven, except perhaps
in the minds of Cox and crew. And they were not only
flaming advocates of the theory, they were determined
to prove the Theory of Continental Drift. Cox on more
than one occasion, had to abjure and/or explain rash
claims he made supporting Continental Drift.

The undeniable truth is: It has never been proven that
the magnetic North has ever temporarily moved to the
South Axle Pole. So, not unlike the rain clouds on Venus,
the very premise of this argument has to be suspect.

The second step: "The zebra strips, paralleling the
mid-oceanic ridges, record those reversals."
Was proven to be wrong.

Briefly, according to theory: As the seafloors spread
at mid-oceanic ridges, the lava that rises to fill in
the opening cracks, cools, assumes, permanently records,
the Earth's magnetic orientation. When the Earth's
magnetic orientation periodically switches between the
North and South Poler Axis, the magnetic orientation of
long rows of cooled lave would record those reversals.

This is the best picture ever made of zebra strips,
and you can see they quickly degenerate into complete
chaos, a short way from the mid-oceanic ridge.

The survey which recorded the information, displayed
on the above map, was made by a ship, passing back
and forth across the med-oceanic ridge, towing an
instrument called a magnometer, on the end of a long
cable. The magnometer read and recorded the magnetic
orientation of the rocks as it passed over them. Then
the areas on the graph, which the magnometer indicated
had a north orientation, were hand painted black and
those with a southern orientation were painted white.

To say that this map is not a perfect representation
of the seafloor it represents, is an understatement
of the Nth degree. But let's just skip that fact.
If there was any truth in the theory that the
orientation of Earth's magnetic field periodically
reverses itself, and that seafloor spreading
records those reverses, then drilling into the
ocean floors parallel to the mid-oceanic ridges
could prove Continental Drift.

Under the above scenario, there would be long
sections of cooled lava, running parallel to the
mid-oceanic ridges, with uniform residual magnetic
orientations running as deep as it is possible to
drill. Simply and truthfully stated: They tried it,
to prove Continental Drift, and much to the chagrin
of the
Driftists, those advocating Continental
Drift, it simply wasn't true.

The drilling crews found absolutely no collation
between the magnetic orientation of the ocean
floors, and the magnetic orientation of the cores
[samples] they retrieved from the holes they were
drilling. And neither did they find any magnetic
orientation continuity in the holes they drilled.
The magnetic orientation switched often and
haphazardly in every hole they drilled.

The zebra strips do not prove the seafloors are
spreading. In fact the drilling done to prove
seafloor spreading, actually proved the seafloors
are not spreading.

And number three: "If the seafloors are spreading,
then the continents have to be drifting."

Obviously can be rewritten to read: "Since the
seafloors are not spreading, the continents can
not be drifting."

To get back to our story: Toward the end of the
Amphibian Era, scaly upstarts began appearing on the
scene. Unlike the amphibians these new animals could
comfortably spend hours out in the sun. Readily
leaving the water far behind, they could feed
anywhere they chose.

Their only real need for water was to quench their
thirst. Their hard-shelled eggs were even enclosed
their own private little environment, so they did not
need to be laid in the water.

These scaly upstarts were the reptiles, the
progenitors of the dinosaurs, the birds, the mammals,
and eventually, many millions of years hence,
of you and I.

Have you ever really pondered, how closely related
man is to the rest of the life on this old Earth?

I find the facts are somewhat humbling, and totally
amazing. Yet, there is not one iota of doubt that;
such is the way the genes bounced.

As the Atlantic and Indian Ocean basins settled, and
water kept steadily evaporating from the Sunny
Hemisphere and freezing into the form of the Glacier
Girdle. The water level, on the Sunny Hemisphere,
probably became hundreds of feet lower than the water
behind the Glacier Girdle, in the Pacific Ocean.

And as the waters warmed, evolution undoubtedly
accelerated, dramatically. Though the warming water
may also brought about the extinction of some
species that had evolved, and lived for eons,
in cold water.

The Glacier Girdle and Ring Mountains existed for
millions of years, effectively separating the warm
inviting waters of the Sunny Ocean from the frigid
waters of the Pacific.

During those many millions of years that this
division of the oceans lasted, there were some
catastrophic breaches, which allowed ocean-like
quantities of frigid water to gush under the warm
waters of the Sunny Hemisphere.

Such intrusions undoubtedly caused the death of
countless animals, and likewise killed many plants.
On some occasions whole species were extinguished,
in other cases such sudden cooling of the oceans may
have been the prime instigator of more than one
mass extinctions.  

As the Amphibian Era came to a close, the
amphibian’s reign, as rulers of the World, may have
been hastened by another invasion of cold water from
the Pacific Ocean.

One thing is an indubitable fact, once the reptiles had
appeared, the amphibian’s reign began to crumble.
The Amphibian Era was over.

The amphibians spread to the Ring Mountains,
and circled the Sunny Hemisphere, during their reign.
And lived on, through a number of mass extinctions,
and watched the world we know today take shape.
Hundreds of species still survive in many a nook and
harbor, on our Earth today.

After the reptiles appeared, they too evolved into
hundreds of species, and like the amphibians, circled
the Globe. And as the land changed ever more into a shape
that we would recognize, they evolved into the dinosaurs,
the largest animals to ever walk upon out Earth.

Dinosaurs, the magnificent curiosity, seem to incite
extreme awe and fascination in nearly everyone. They
ruled the World for more than a hundred and sixty
million years. The only equals the mightiest of them
ever met were members of their own kind. They evolved
into thousands of different species, and at least
periodically inhabited every continent on Earth.
The predators dined on everything from insects to

The herbivores munched on a wide variety of flora,
ranging from moss and grass, to leaves and twigs
plucked from tall trees. They adapted to utilize
nearly every niche and expanse in their environment
that the present-day mammals have managed to
occupy. Dinosaurs were hardy, adaptable and great
survivors. They deserve our awe and admiration.

The dinosaurs occupied a much different world than
we know. The sunny side of their world was bathed
in continuous Sunlight. But the site of the North
and South Polar Axes, probably only annually, saw
the Sun rise over the horizon but a short way,
less than sixty degrees, before it started to
descend again. The rest of the year was spent in
a waning twilight and falling temperatures,
forecasting the impeding cold, dark winter.

After two or three months of total darkness, the
horizon would once again show a hint of light.
The temperature would then begin to rise as light
slowly flooded the area, long before the Sun
actually appeared over the horizon, to usher in
another summer. Under these conditions was, when
and where, nearly all the plants that we know
today originated.

Annuals, learned to flower, produce their seeds
and drop them quickly, that they might extend
their species through the coming winter.
Perennials evolved and honed the ability to
anticipate the coming winter, drop its leaves,
and let the moisture drain from its trunks or
stem and limbs, and descend down deep into its
roots.  It learned to become dormant. To survive
the winter by playing dead, only to miraculously
sprout new leaves and burst into bloom, with the
arrival of spring.

But the areas around the North and South Polar Axis
were not the only areas on primitive Earth, where
life established thriving, biologically diverse
communities. Outside the reach of any [or at least
any continuous] direct sunrays.

Antarctica, Australia, Eurasia, North America and
South America all had large tracks of land that
perpetually remained in the twilight. All also had
lands that only seasonally received some direct
sunlight, and remained in the twilight for the rest
of the year. Some of these areas, for example, the
strip of land that reaches from Northern Mexico up
through Montana and North Dakota, were among the most
biologically productive areas on Earth. The oil and
coal reserves in this strip pay mute testimony to
that fact. Yet this area was well within a twilight
zone throughout the entire Dinosaur Era.

Of course we all know that flora flourishes
under the canopy of a rain forest. That many plants
actually prefer indirect light. Yet, frankly it was
a bit unsettling to have to conclude that ninety
percent of the fossils, of flora and fauna, that I
saw in my life, lived and died in a twilight zone.

A lot about such an environment matches the known
characteristics of the era’s flora. The giant ferns,
the incredible height that some of the relatively
small trees reached, the huge cattails, and over
sized leaves of other plants, all point toward the
probability that these plants grew in an environment
with little or no direct sunlight. It is almost
certain that such plants did not grew in any
environment sporting continuous direct sunlight.

If the clouds during the Dinosaur Era naturally
moved away from the center of the Sunny Hemisphere,
and slowed as they spread out like anything moving
centrifugally does, then the skies of all the
twilight zones around the World were probably all
partly cloudy, to mostly cloudy, most of the time.
If such was the reality, the sun shining over the
horizon and reflecting off of those clouds, could
have very easily doubled, or perhaps even tripled
the amount of light, that would normally have been
reflected off the water and emerging continents. A
cloud cover would also have competently conserved
the heat, which moved continuously from the Sunny
Hemisphere, to the Twilight Zone.

The world at the edge of the Sunny Hemisphere must
have been a strange, eerie world. Whether or not,
an area at the edge of Sunny Hemisphere received
some direct sunlight, or lay just beyond the reach
of the Sun’s rays, the plants, including the trees,
would surely have grown/leaned sharply toward the
light. We may have to adjust our concept of light
boned rangy animals scampering around on the forest
floors, to an expanded arboreal existence.

Imagining such animals chasing each another up,
down and through the tops of leaning trees, and
remembering that some of these animals developed
something that at least resembled feathers, it is not
hard to accept that gliding, or even true flight
about had to be an evolutionary possibility. In
retrospect, some may think, it logically appears
obtaining the ability to fly was more like, a
probability. The animals that occupied the Earth,
during the Dinosaur Era, had a long, long time to
acquire and hone new evolutionary abilities.

There is a problem, with asserting that crustal plates
tilted down to the oceanic ridges, and created the
Sunny Hemisphere’s ocean basins. Any sphere, including
the Earth’s crust, holds a finite amount of matter.
And if we maintain dents are developing on a sphere’s
surface, then we must account for where the matter went,
which those dents displaced.

When the Glacier Girdle pushed land from the center of
the Sunny Hemisphere, the floor of the Pacific Ocean
behind the Glacier Girdle was left far below
gravitational/spherical balance. To put it in the
simplest terms, as the force of gravity increased on the
crust of the Earth, as it emerged from the Sunlit Ocean,
the pressures increased proportionally inside the
Earth’s Crust on the opposite side of the World.

You would think, since the ocean floors are obviously
the lowest points on the Earth’s surface, that any
untenable internal pressures built up in the Earth’s
crust, would be ejected out upon the ocean floors.
Obviously that is not what usually happens. Instead it
is more ordinary to see the top blow off some mountain
that is thousands of yards [several kilometers] high
and often within a few hundred miles [or kilometers]
of the ocean.

The pressure it takes to force magma up thousands of
yards/meters through the interior of a mountain, and
then blow the top off of that mountain, is almost
incalculable. But one thing is for sure: The pressure
is far greater a hundred miles away, a couple thousand
yards/meters below sea-level on the ocean floor.

The primary reason magma seldom escapes on the ocean
floors is; when magma tries to escape up through a
fissure and comes into contact with water, it is
almost instantly cooled. It is like dropping a
red-hot horseshoe in a bucket of cold water. In two
minutes you can handle such a horseshoe with your bare
hands. Magma that comes into direct contact with cold
water, usually violently bursts, into tiny pieces.

Only after the water surrounding the magma gets hot
enough, and/or sufficient shattered debris accumulates
to protect the magma and allow it to cool a bit more
slowly, does it began to set up. Eventually magma
nearly always solidifies and effectively keeps the
fissures in the ocean floors, at least temporarily,

When the top of a fissure is sealed and the pressure
keep mounting to untenable extremes, the magma takes
the route of least resistance to relieve that pressure.
Some times the plug, the newly solidified magma that
sealed the fissure, is the weakest lank, and gets
violently removed, in an undersea eruption. Such
eruptions are common along oceanic fissures.

They very greatly in intensity and can eject a great
deal, or very little of the fissure walls, along with
the plug. The largest eruptions create giant tsunamis
that ravage beaches, hundreds of kilometers/miles away.
Eventually the water manages to cool and bring even the
most violent eruptions under control. And the fissure
is resealed, with a little larger plug.

Where the plug is strong enough, and remains in place
long enough, the pressure is often relieved by a route
that avoids the antithetical clashes of water and magma.
The pressure of the magma instead forces a subterranean
intrusion between the strata that constitutes the ocean

Magma usually intrudes deep enough below the ocean
floor, that some of the water has been squeezed out of
the formations where it encroaches. Sealed from direct
contact with water and blanketed against heat loss by
the strata above, the intruding magma may flow for
years and cover huge areas. It should be noted that
once the formations above the magma have been broken
loose and lifted, it takes little or no pressure to
hold them up. The magma is heavier than the formations.
The lifted stratum literally floats upon the magma.

The magma, which had to move to allow the oceans basins
on the Sunny Hemisphere to sink, caused a like quantity
of magma to intrude subterraneously between the strata
on the floor of the Pacific Ocean. The evidence of
these intrusions remains obvious today, even though
the Pacific Ocean has under gone some dramatic changes
since the Dinosaur Era ended. The thousands of sea
mounts on the floor of the Pacific Ocean offers
us a hint of where the magma may have gone.

Prior to the end of the Dinosaur Era, the Magnetic
North and South Poles were on the Equator, on the
original Equator. They were close, but were not
located on, the present day Equator. The North
Magnetic Pole was situated at about ten degrees
South, and fifty-five degrees west, very near
Flint Island.

The South Magnetic Pole was in Southeastern Sudan,
at about ten degrees North, and twenty-five degrees
East. The North Magnetic Pole may have drifted
[what is presently South] a few degrees during the
summer on [what is presently the Northern Hemisphere]
and drifted a few degrees [what is presently North]
during the summer on [what is presently the Southern

Whether or not the Magnetic Poles have always wondered
as they have in the last couple thousand years is
uncertain. But is doubtful that they wondered any
appreciable amount before they started to drift,
toward the Polar Rotational Axis. Before the Earth
started rotating once a day, the Earth’s magnetic
field may have had a much more stable guidance
system than it has today.

It appears that most scientists believe that the
Earth’s Magnetic Field is somehow generated
within Earth’s core. On the following page, is one
explanation, of how they reach such a conclusion.
It sounds a bit like dinosaurs on Venus to me.

The Glacier Girdle undoubtedly eventually rose
thousands of yards above the surface of the primitive
oceans. Obviously the height of the Glaciers Girdle was
dictated by the rate precipitation, snow accumulated, less
the rate of melting that occurred where the base of the
ice came in contact with the Earth’s primitive crust. The
Continents, on our Earth today, pay mute evidence to the
tremendous weight of the Glacier Girdle. For God did not
created the dry land, which we now call continents, in
place. Nor was there any super-continent In-the-Beginning
which mysteriously broke apart, and sailed off half way
around the Globe, to became the continents, we now know.
It was the Glacier Girdle that encircled the Earth, which
so deformed and reshaped our planet, that portions of the
ocean-floor were thrust above sea level.

Let us suppose, that the Glacier Girdle reach the hight
of about 20,000 feet, [6,500 meters] above the surface of
the primitive ocean. Now we can calculate, that the water
escaping from between the ice and newly-formed land at
sealevel, would escape with a pressure in excess of 7,900
pounds per square inch, [550 kilograms per square
centimeter]. On the ocean-floor, at the base of the Glacier
Girdle the pressures would reach almost 11,500 pounds per
square inch, or over 800 kilograms per square centimeter.

Billions would not number the cubic yards [meters]
of ice that melted annually, where the Glacier Girdle came
in contact with the primitive Earth's crust. Neither
would billions even come close to numbering the barrels of
water, which were jetted annually, under the tremendous
pressures generated by the weight of the Glacier Girdle.
Nor would billions number the cubic yards [meters]
of rock-flour that washed annually from under the
Glacier Girdle, to be deposited in an ever thickening
stratum stretching across the Sunny Hemisphere.

You, any thinking geologist, or any real scientist, will
have to concede that In-the-beginning, had there been some
great super continent, there would have to be abundant
traces of ancient conglomerate alluvium,
formations made up
of rocks and sand, varying in size and color,
which were
washed from that great continent. There have not been any
such ancient formations found. And there will never be
any such ancient formations found. Except for the Ring
Mountains which paralleled the Glacier Girdle, the first
land to break the surface of the ocean, the first land on
the Sunny Hemisphere appeared only shortly, on an
evolutionary time scale, before the first amphibians
crawled from the Sunny Ocean.

As explained in the illustration of an aqua planet, with
one side continuously facing its sun, the Glacier Girdle
accomplished what an equal quantity of ice covering the
dark side of the planet could have accomplished. The
Glacier Girdle shifted the Earth’s center of gravity,
until the ocean floor was elevated above the surface
of the Sunny Ocean.

Now, as you may have noted, the shores of the Pacific
Ocean do not form a perfect circle. And granted, was
the Pacific Ocean the product of the simple phenomena in
the allegory, it should, would, lie in the form of a
near-perfect circle.

But, please also note on the home page, or a  globe,
that the shores of the North Pacific Ocean do form the
greater part of an almost perfect circle. And that
furthermore the South Pacific Ocean covers an area
almost identical, in size and shape, to
that covered by the North Pacific Ocean.

The explanation is simple: The primeval Earth’s axis of
rotation was tilted, relative to its orbital plane. You
may further note, on a Globe, the North Pacific Circle
does not lie directly north of the South Pacific Circle.
A common-bisector of these two circles, indicates that
the original location of the North Pole Axis, was in
Siberia, about 30 degrees South of its present location.
Or, more precisely, by measuring from a common-center of
the circles on the aforementioned bisector, we can place
the original North Pole Axis near the Northwest corner
the Sea of Okhotsk, or at a point about 143 degrees East
Longitude, on the North, Sixtieth Parallel. The South
Pole Axis was located near the Geographical Co-ordinates,
45 degrees West Longitude by 60 degrees South Latitude,
a site near the Orkney Islands.

The original scope of the Glacier Girdle that encircled
the Pacific Ocean for most of our Earth’s History can
easily be ascertained today by simply tracing the
“Ring-of-Fire” or following the various mountain ranges
and oceanic trenches that encircle the Pacific Ocean.

Please note: I made two circles on a globe and roughed
out the geometrics, therefore they are but approximations.

To trace the circle, of mountains that edged the Glacier
Girdle, from America, follow the Rocky Mountains north,
continuing along the Mackenzie Mountains, to the Brooks
Range. Then cross over to the Koryak Mountain Range, and
continue down the Kamchatka Peninsula, then follow the
Kuril and Izu Trenches passed the Japanese Islands. Next
head toward the Equator and New Guinea, and then follow
the Great Dividing Range along the east coast of
Australia, to Mount Kosciusko. From Mount Kosciusko,
continue south to Tasmania, and  head for the
Transantarctic Mountains. Circle Antarctica by way of
Marie Byrd Land, and the Antarctic Peninsula, and you
are ready to head north, via the Andes, back
to Rocky Mountain Country.

We can ascertain much more from the shape of the Pacific
Oceans. The amount the intersecting circles overlap
indicates the degree the primitive Earth’s Axis was
tilted, relative to its orbital plane. Let me suggest
you get yourself a  globe, and as near as possible,
reconstruct these geometric drawings.

From the position of the overlapping circles, we can
calculate, that the Earth’s Axis was tilted during early
Earth History at slightly less of an angle, relative to
our Sun, than it is today. Or, more precisely, it appears
the Earths Axis was originally tilted, a bit more than 19
degrees. Which of course, is somewhat less than 23.5
degrees, the Earth’s present orbit inclination. It may
well be that our planets inclination has remained
unchanged, the annual winter and summer at the Axis
Poles, may have just failed to situate the Glacier Girdle,
to perfectly indicate the exact degree of inclination.

You may have noticed, on the North American Continent,
the Pacific Ocean no longer extends to the edge of the
North Pacific circle. Nevertheless be assured that
throughout most of Earth History the Pacific Ice Cap did
extend to a position, just west of the Rocky Mountains.
Only after the weight of the Glacier Girdle, by tilting
the crustal plates, began to modify the shape of the
Earth, did that portion of the Glacier Girdle covering
Western America recede.

The Pacific coastal mountains, and oceanic trenches,
mutely testify to a later phenomenon. That the Glacier
Girdle did grow to near its original magnificence, in a
new location, one paralleling the present coast of the
North Pacific Ocean. The illustration below clearly
outlines the remnants of the Ring Mountains, at the
original site of the Glacier Girdle.

“General Geology,” by Robert J. Foster, and copyrighted in 1969
by “Charles E. Merrill Publishing Company” of Columbus,

The Mountain Ranges you know today, are not remnants
of the ancient Ring Mountains. The Ring Mountains can
justifiably only be called mountains, when we ponder
their magnitude setting upon the ocean floor. The Ring
Mountains continuously grew wider and wider, and sloped
ever more slowly as they extended further and further into
the Sunny Ocean. But, the Ring Mountains never extended
but a few feet above the surface of the Sunny Ocean
while the Glacier Girdle existed.

Once portions of the Ring Mountains emerged, grew above sea
level, avalanches and glacier flows, no longer held in check
by the warm waters of the Sunny Ocean, would move across
those exposed crests, continuously leveling them. The
incredible quantities of Water escaping from under the
Glacier Girdle also tended to hold the height of the Ring
Mountains in check by continuously washing across them
wherever and whenever they become exposed.

Remnants of the Ring Mountains have been found in many
locations. And those locations do roughly encircle the
Pacific Ocean. But said remnants have often been
erroneously identified, usually as the exposed roots of
ancient mountain ranges, supposedly similar to those we
know today, which have been eroded away. The Ring
Mountains, in most cases have become, part of what
we now call the Continental Shields.

On the other hand, all of the mountain ranges that we know
today, all orogenesis, all mountain building episodes, are
the result of the same simple phenomenon, the tilting
of Crustal Plates. Yes Plate Tectonics is, or rather will
one day become, a viable science. Even though I maintain
crustal plates are not moved around over the Globe,
periodically bashed into each other, nor or they ever slowly
drug down into the fiery depths of Hell to be devoured by
some mysterious omnipotent force, by some inanimate Devil.
Crustal Plates do not drift, are not subject to subduction,
nor do they ever shift horizontally relative to one another.
Crustal Plates do not even shift vertically relative to
each other. Whenever a Crustal Plate tilts, up or down,
the adjoining plate always moves with them.

Yes, many of us have seen where a crustal plate appears
to have shifted horizontally relative to an adjacent plate.
Please let me assure you that it was only a relatively
small chuck of some of the upper strata on the plate that
actually shifted. Crustal Plates are hundreds of miles
thick, and do not shift horizontally, or vertically,
relative to the other.

There is but one defined force within the realm of true
physics, capable of so deforming Earth that the crust on
our planet would crack. One force powerful enough to move,
tilt, a crustal plate and that force is gravity. And
gravity, directed by the accretion and then melting of the
Glacier Girdle, is the godlike force singularly
responsible for the present shape of our Earth.

To conclude that some alternative undefined infinite force
is responsible for reshaping of our Earth, is but to invoke
mysticism, in lieu of logic. No defined force, no observable,
or otherwise detectable, credible mechanism has ever been
postulated, that could motivate continental drift.

Now, I’m quite sure that you all have heard that ageless
proverb which teaches; when it waddles like a duck, quacks
like a duck, and as in this case, even smells a bit like a
fish fed duck, then you are safe in assuming, that it is,
in fact, a duck.

Well, any infinite, intangible force, accessible only via
verbal projection, is similar to nothing but the Gods,
past and present. Genuine logicians do not believe in
Gods or Devils, neither animate nor inanimate. And this
simple summation should incite grave ambivalence in any
truly objective scientist, whom has heretofore believed
in the Theory of Continental Drift.

I wish it could be that easy. Surely the most formidable
task any man could charge himself with is that of reasoning
away a universally acknowledged belief, in an intangible
force, in some God, or Devil. Any educated person would know
that history proves it, utter folly, to even attempt such
an endeavor.

The illustrious, Harold Jeffreys, began expressing his
opposition to the Theory of Continental Drift, and pointing
out to his learned colleagues, that the force of gravity
was by far, the mightiest force exerted upon the crust of
the Earth, ten years before I was born. But alas, alas, his
efforts were all to no avail. Even though, Sir Jeffreys was
a World renowned, knighted astronomer, methodist of
mathematical physics and geophysicist, on this issue he
found himself in the same unenviable position that many
other kindred logician has came to know and accept. That
sterile position, from which not one word of reason can be
heard above the clamorous baying of the edjuts, in hot
pursuit of their mysterious, mechanical, Devil of the
inner Earth.
[Edjut is an oilfield, construction hand term;
meaning educated idiot]
Sir Jefferys, made much about the
fact that even gravity, the mightiest force exerting
itself upon the Crust of the Earth, was of insufficient
prevalence to flatten the mountains. I wonder? If Sir
Jefferys ever passed a deserted play ground, perhaps in
the dead of winter, or in the wee hours of the morning.
And noted, that neither does the force of gravity appear
to be of sufficient prevalence, to render it capable of
lowering, the light end of an abandoned teeter-totter.

Remember, what Archimedes boasted? “Give me a lever long
enough, and a fulcrum strong enough, and single-handed,
I can move the World.”

Obviously, the force of gravity acting upon the light
end of the aforementioned teeter-totter is more than
equaled by the opposing force of gravity acting upon the
heavy end of the teeter-totter. Physically, a force equal
to the weight of the light end of the teeter-totter is
oppositely transposed via the teeter-totter board, or
lever, from the heavy end to the light end of the
teeter-totter. Similarly, in as simple a manner,
leverage is the prime motivating medium of all orogenic
forces. And therefore, understanding the awesome
potential of leverage is an elementary prerequisite
to comprehending the true physics of plate tectonics.

Actually, if you were to float a plank in a bath tub
(lets say a plank that measures 2X thick, by 6X wide,
by 36X long) and then you were to tack a piece of 1X
quarter-round, 6X long, along the edge on one end of
that plank, you would note that the quarter-round would
have little effect upon the plank, or upon the level at
which the plank floated. A rather childish experiment,
don't you agree? But it does demonstrate, comparatively
speaking, just about how much effect a mountain range
has upon the crustal plate it edges.

Now, on the other hand, if you were to place a 5X beaker
on the other end of our plank and began filling it with
ice, you would soon note the effect. Not only would the
end with the beaker on it begin to submerge, but almost
magically the other end of the board would begin to rise.
Of course it is because, like the teeter-totter, the
force of gravity upon the added weight, ice, is oppositely
transposed along the lever, or board. Crustal plates
on our sphere, floating on a molten interior, respond
to the same laws of physics, as did the board in our
allegoric bathtub. There is but insignificant differences.
Think about it: The water in our bathtub was but a minute
portion, of the same sphere. The water in the tub even
arcs congruently, to the descending horizons of an ocean.
Granted there are many other pertinent factors that must
be considered, if we are to clearly understand what has
taken place on Earth. But no mysterious phenomenon, or forces,
nothing incomprehensible to the common-intellect has ever
played a role in forming the surface features of our planet.

The Amphibian Era,
that magical time when land first began to emerge from the
center of the Sunny Ocean approached, some percentage,
perhaps as much as 25 to 50 percent of the water that
had originally blanketed the Sunlit Hemisphere, had
frozen, and remained frozen, in the form of the Glacier
Girdle. And the great weight of that unstable ice form
commanded those geographical areas encircling the Earth
adjacent to that great Glacier Girdle, to become the most
geologically active regions that had ever come to pass on
the Earth. Or at least, that had come and passed, since
the Earth emerged from the throes of Creation.

Although undoubtedly, local thawing caused the Glacier
Girdle to temporarily recede, for a certain time, in
particular areas. The relentlessly advancing ice would
inevitably return. And the slow moving Glacier Girdle
continuously, abrasively, routed deeper and deeper into
the primeval Earth’s crust, until eventually the eroding
crust began to give way and a parallel crack opened under
the Glacier Girdle, allowing ice and fiery lava to clash,
repetitively, in violent, explosive confrontations of
their antithetical characteristics.

Untenable pressures generated by those clashes, drove
not only superheated water, but likewise molten lava to
subterraneously intrude extensively into the Ring
Mountains, and spawn a multitude of volcanic and steamy
geyseric eruptions. Massive magma and water flows, soon
encircled the Earth, paralleling the Glacier Girdle.

But beneath the placid waters at the center of the Sunny
Ocean, for the first time on Earth, light begin to
illuminate a portion of the ocean floor. A portion of the
ocean floor that would steadily grow larger and larger,
until millions of square miles lay bathed in eternal

Both primitive aqua flora and fauna, were quick to take
advantage of this marvelous virgin Eden. They evolved
like fruit flies, and multiplied like rats in a granary.
There was, in a very short time on an evolutionary
time scale, a very beautiful biological diversity
thriving on Earth. And contrarily to what you have been
taught, all this came to be long before there was any
land that amounted to much, which was suitable for
habitation. But continents were truly in the making,
as the final curtain began to slowly descend upon the
weaning Aqua Era.

The Glacier Girdle that encircled the Earth corseted it
as snugly, comparatively speaking, as were the waists
of America’s wealthy southern belles during those, gone
but not forgotten, enchanting horse and buggy days.
It should be added if I dare, (forgive me ladies) the
Glacier Girdle moved mass much more effectively and
permanently, than did the whalebone corsets worn by
those aristocratic belles.

The Glacier Girdle was solely responsible for
routing and washing the rock flour from the primeval
Earth’s crust, which now constitutes much of the
continental shields. And by directing the subterraneous
intrusion of superheated water and molten magma into
the Ring Mountains, and adjoining primitive strata, the
Glacier Girdle was indirectly responsible for leaching
and separating the various elements derived from
that rock flour.

The Glacier Girdle wrought a great deal more. As said
it was the Glacier Girdle which so shifted the Earth’s
center of gravity that the sea-floor, the first land,
slowly emerged from the center of the Sunlit Ocean.

As central east Africa, the area surrounding the original
site of the South Magnetic Pole, rose to emerge from the
Sunlit Ocean, the force of gravity magnified
proportionally, in its effort to maintain the Earth’s
spherical form. And it was when those Crustal Plates began
tilting in compliance with gravity’s spherical inclinations
that the continents, much as we know them today, began to
take shape.  Since the Pacific Ocean was much narrower,
east to west, than the distance across the Sunny
Hemisphere, the Glacier Girdles probably oppositely
transposed sufficient pressures to form an apex in the
center of the Pacific Ocean and create one of the first
great fissures, which were to slowly encircle the globe.

The great fissure that separated Africa from Europe was
undoubtedly one of the first, if not the first crack to
appear on the Sunny Hemisphere. The shifting
gravitational attraction of the Sun, as the Earth
continuously tilted on its axis, from winter to summer
and back to winter, probably accelerated that rifting.

At this late date there is little evidence left of some
of the fissures that played a major roll in initiating
the crustal plates tilting that helped shape our
continents. Look at Antarctica. Maps of the Earth’s
ocean floors clearly show the rifts that circled
Antarctica. But there is no sign of the  great rift that
ripped the continent apart, as it's edges tilted down
with the subsiding Atlantic-Indian Ocean and East
Indian Ocean Ridges. It is obvious that the rift is
there, and was very active, it divided the continent.
Now, only a hot lake in a frigid country, a wisp
of smoke from a volcanic mountain, and a few other
similar hints, reminds us that a great crack still
lurks under the glaciers. A great many of the cracks
in the Earth’s crust, which allowed crustal plates to
tilt down to the ocean’s ridges, have never been found,
much less documented, mapped. For example: The Owen
fracture Zone extends on between Africa and Madagascar,
to the Prince Edwards Fracture Zone. This
Africa/Madagascar Fracture allowed The Madagascar
Plate to pull away from Africa, as the East side of
the plate subsided with the Indian Ocean Ridge.

To explain the tilting of crustal plates, let us
focus our attention on North America. In-The-Beginning,
the Glacier Girdle that accreted in the area we
now call North America, was situated just westerly
adjacent of what is now the Rocky Mountains. [
illustrated on the map.
] The depth of the strata,
which formed the Ring Mountains in this area, leaves
no room to doubt that the Glacier Girdle did remain
at this location for millions of years, before it
melted and reformed near what is presently the west
coast of the United States.

This change in North America probably came very
gradually. Crustal plates move, tilt, very slowly,
probably only inches per year, at most but a few feet.
Therefore it probably took not only hundreds, or
thousands, but perhaps millions of years for the
Glacier Girdle to melt and reform on what is now the
west coast of North America.

But, what could cause thousands of feet, several
kilometers, of ice that had remained stationary for
millions of years to suddenly begin to melt? It was
most likely a combination of events, all of which
were the result of tilting crustal plates.

On the world that I have described, all lines of
force, namely the force of gravity attempting to
flatten the Earth as it emerged from the depths,
on the Sunny Hemisphere would have radiated from
the original site of the South Magnetic Pole in
Africa, out in a complete circle, to the Glacier
Girdle. And likewise, the lines of force, weight
oppositely transposed, from the Glacier Girdle
would have all pointed inwardly, toward the South
Magnetic pole. Where these two powerful oppositely
transposed forces met, at what is now the Mid-Atlantic
Ridge, they caused the Earth's Crust to apex. Actually
rock formations bend very little before they break. The
combined forces bent the crust, and the rock cracked.

Once the integrity of the Crust was violated, the Glacier
Girdle was tilting a crustal plate that reach from the
Rocky Mountains to the mid Atlantic, about 3,000 miles
[4,850 kilometers]of plate. Remember the plank and beaker
full of ice. That would be like submerging the end of a
40 foot plank. Something would have to give, and it
did, the crust fissured along the Appalachian Mountains,
the coast of Africa and Europe, and allowed the
Mid-Atlantic Ridge to settle.  

As the Atlantic Ocean basin subsided, it drained an
ocean of water from the land, lowered the horizon,
and exposed millions of acres of land that had been
covered by water, to a never setting Sun. At the
same time the Appalachian Mountains were slowly rising,
higher into the eternal sun, and collecting more solar
heat. Eventually water and atmosphere may have both
circulated around the Appalachian Mountains, and
expedited the Glacier Girdle's receding.
The coal mines paralleling the East coast of North
America, are the products of hot humid swamps, and
pay mute testament to a climate that could have
easily extended temperate conditions on passed the
Glacier Girdle, and started the great thaw. Likewise
the Rocky Mountain coal mines and millions of fossils,
prove beyond a doubt that all the central United
States periodically enjoyed a bountiful temperate
climate for millions of years.

A sphere is the most capable of all geometric forms,
at withstanding equally applied external pressures.

Whether it is the force of gravity on our globe, as the red
arrows in [figure 1] crudely represent, or a thousand feet of
sea water on a diving bell, a sphere can withstand incredible
pressures. Pressure on one area of a sphere is actually
oppositely transposed to help the sphere withstand
pressure on the adjacent areas.

But even the phenomenal strength of a sphere can be thwarted
by what would be tenable external pressures, if those
pressures are applied unevenly to different areas on the
sphere. Uneven pressure like that depicted in [figure 2]
above, which is supposedly representative of the weight of
the Glacier Girdle and the strengthening force of gravity
on the emerging terra firma, can oval a sphere and form a
bulge, or an apex on the sides with less pressure. And
any apex, in a rock formations equals, a crack,
a fissure.

Similarly, once the integrity of the sphere, the Earth’s
Crust, had been corrupted, had rifted, the crust had
been robbed of much of its strength. And the force of
gravity pressing down at the newly formed [North
Atlantic Ridge] fissure had hundreds of miles of
leverage to open fissures running parallel to the ridge.
And thereby allow the newly formed rift to begin settling.
[figure 3] Once the rifts had opened and the Mid Atlantic
Ridge began to settle, it continued subsiding for millions
of years. Until, at the onset of the Mammal Era, the
Atlantic Ocean was actually deeper than it is today.
The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is now slowly rising.

When land first appeared in the middle of the Sunlit
Ocean, it was not just one small island that slowly
emerged to dry in the sun, and become out of bounds to
the aqua flora and fauna that abounded in the
surrounding waters. Thousands of square miles, many
thousands of square kilometers of the ocean floor,
that had bathed in the penetrating rays of the Sun for
an eon, and was teeming with aqua life, rose slowly to
meet the placid surface of the Sunny Hemisphere.

Eventually plants grew up through the shallow water to
reach the surface of the Sunny Hemisphere and adapted
to absorb sunlit directly. Those first surface plants
had many advantages over their ancestor’s strictly aqua
existence. One of the greatest was they could fan out
to shade the water and smother their competition.

But, evolution is a story of one-upmanship and soon
the other plants that survived, just rose above the
water, where there was an unlimited supply of sunlit.
Once hardy plants were growing above the water, it was
just one small evolutionary step, to step out onto dry
ground. Of course many of the plants that had evolved
in those shallow sunlit waters survived by moving into
deeper water around the perimeter of the emerging land
and lived on to eventually spread worldwide.  

Animals found life, in the shallow water, on this
emerging “Alphaland,” becoming more and more confining.
Not only, was the water level falling, as the plants
grew thicker, but the plant stems were steadily
growing larger and stiffer. And when it rained hard,
the water moved from the center of the emerging
continent flowing centrifugally toward the perimeter
and deeper water. This new moving water had
properties foreign to the waters of the Sunny
Hemisphere, and stirred up silt and debris, muddied
the water, and made it hard for animals that had evolved
in placid waters to see and breath.
Great trails and tribulations appear to be the
mother and father of evolution.
"Grandpa Nate’s Legacy"
The only true account of our Earth’s trek through time.
By Grandpa Nate
Were you aware that the shores of the North
Pacific and South Pacific Oceans are
congruent with two overlapping circles?
The black ring circling the North Pacific [right]
and the red ring circling the South Pacific
[below] clearly demonstrates  how those two  
circles overlap.
A common bisector of the two circles, the
green line, traces the site of the Earth’s
original Equator
And if we bisect that portion of the Equator
within the circles, as the white line does, we
can  geometrically locate the site [the red
square] of the original North Magnetic Pole.
The same site scientists had carefully
ascertained was the original North Magnetic
Pole, by palo magnetic investigation, long
before Cox, Doell and Cohorts began to skew
Polar History, in their attempts to bolster the
Theory of Continental Drift.
If the white bisector of  the Equator is
extended on around the Earth the two
points on that white line furthest from the  
Equator are the original sites of the North
and South Axis Poles.
The red square, at the Northwest corner of
the Sea of Okhotsk, [directly above the
black ring  on the above image] is the site of
the original North Axis Pole, and later
became home
to the North Magnetic Pole
This book carefully explains these
revelations. Why these circles are where
they are, and how these circles dictated
where the Axis and Magnetic Poles were
It even carefully explains why the Magnetic
Poles moved, to join the Axis Poles.
And this is just one of  several
extraordinary facts, explained in this book,
which will inevitably rewrite Earth History.

Grandpa Nate wrote this book, Grandpa Nate’s Legacy, for his children, grandchildren,
great-grandchildren, and hopefully, for generations to come. The first 10 of the book's
14 chapters painstakingly, step by step, details Earth's true History,
before veering off light-years onto other subjects.

Grandpa Nate’s Legacy, explains how our Earth, a near perfect sphere covered almost
evenly, with about 9,000 feet of water, was transformed into the World we know today.

Grandpa Nate’s Legacy, is not just some short, quickly assembled, essay. It represents
a lifetime  of study, and contains well over 60,000 words, over 150 pages of Courier
New 13 Print, and I must concede, a host of rather sorry illustration's.

The Truth
It is often lamented that the truth is in very short supply
these days. The "Powers That Be" do rigidly control our media
and indubitably, in today's World, most news is subjected to
considerable subterfuge before it is relayed to the people,
by any news media.

Our American Politicians' success hinges on their ability
to spin the truth, to hide the truth in double speak. Or
to blatantly tell the truth, their success hinges on their
ability to lie.

And our politicians are not the only government officials
to debase the truth. The Republican Party, wielded such
tyrannical power that representatives of NASA, EPA, the
U.S. Geological Survey, numerous toady college professors,
and a horde of other professional people, who's jobs
depend upon government appropriations, all deliberately
spun the truth, and vehemently denied our Planet was over
heating, because of carbon dioxide and other toxic gases,
being recklessly spewed into our atmosphere.

To avoid investing in "Global Health and Prosperity,"
to avoid spending the money, for technological
research and the antipollution equipment, needed to
curtail global warming: Big Business,
the conglomerates
that own our politicians,
were willing to risk sending
the only inhabitable Planet that we are aware of, down a
path toward a fiery hell, which may very well,
yet instigate a mass extinction.

It is hard to believe that there are people in this world
that are so dedicated to profit, to the bottom line, that
they would stupidly risk our beautiful Earth, to enhance
their annual gain.

Yet, by far the most harmful form of misrepresenting the
truth is teaching our children that some hyped theory,
like the "Theory of Continental Drift," is a
Scientifically Proven Phenomenon.


Earth's Geological History,

as presently taught in our schools and universities, is
nothing more than a modern myth. It is just an elaborate
[conjured up by innumerable contributors over a
dozen decades
] to explain how the Earth arrived at this
point in time, in its present condition.

It should not strike us as incredible, or even unlikely,
that our society formulated a fallacious story to explain
the origin of our Earth. Every society that ever existed
upon this Planet, and left a decipherable record, either
adopted, or made up a story which accounted for the
Earth's presents.

Neither should it surprise us to learn that our version
of Earth History is just as wrong, as were those [now]
ridicules tales conjured up by those societies we
sprang from.

Nor should we forget that the Egyptians, Greeks, Romans,
Celts, Ancient Chinese, Mayans, Aztecs, and the thousands
of other peoples who have inhabited this old Earth, all
believed that they were the ultimate chapter in human
history. And that they were just as profoundly confident,
as are our prestigious Geology Professors teaching their
malarkey, that they had their World "
all knowed-up."
"Grandpa Nate's Legacy," there will be no attempt
made here to prove that the "Earth History"  presently
espoused by the enlightened World, is based upon unproven,
distorted data, and fallacious theories.

This essay is only meant to be, the first true, quick,
sketch of our Earth's trek through time.

But this story is supposed to challenge your concept of
Earth History: So please! Do not conclude that this story
is not worth reading the first time you find a statement,
"WHICH YOU JUST KNOW IS NOT TRUE." Please First read the
whole story, then criticize until you lose your voice.

Just set back, relax, open your mind, and enjoy.
[Even if you don't buy it; its a great story.]

Earth History Recap

What ever dramatic events took place, to account for our
Earth's mass, remain hidden in the mists of time. We could
speculate endlessly about how the Earth came into existence:
Did it slowly accrete from dust orbiting the Sun? Or was it
perhaps splashed from the bowels of Jupiter, along with the
Icy Europa, by some swiftly moving interloper from Outer
Space? Or could the Earth just be a lonely passer-by, which
veered to close and became snared in our Sun's gravity.

The possibilities that could account for our Earth's mass
are endless, but any discussion of them would be just idle
speculation. For there is not one iota of evidence,
concerning the Earth's origin, to hang a theory on.

Since we don't know how the Earth originated, our story
must begin with the Earth already in place. We could
dwell upon whether or not the Earth’s crust was ever hot
enough to convert all of its waters into steam. But
lacking a shred of evidence concerning that subject,
it too would be just so much more idle speculation.
So let’s skip it.

The oldest rocks ever found
[rocks scientists claim are
between three and four billion years old
] have all been
exposed to sufficient heat to badly deform, and
metamorphose them, rendering them useless as evidence
about the environmental conditions during those long
ago eras. Their condition does indicate that the Earth
once had a much thinner, warmer, crust than it now has,
and their residual magnetism does collectively point
toward the past location of the North Magnetic Pole.

Actually, although it is seldom acknowledged, the
Earth by all indications had a thin enough crust,
four billion years ago, for gravity to have formed
it into a near-perfect sphere. A sphere almost evenly
covered with about 9,000 feet [3,000 meters] of water.
Few scientists have ever dared to even stick a toe into
this subject: Because the hypothesis is in accord with
the biblical, "Genesis'," account of Creation.
Such an Earth does not appear to have been the most
ideal place for life to originate. Neither does it
leave open any possibility that "
there was some great super continent, a

The truth is, at that point in time,the crust of
the Earth wasn't strong enough to support a
continent. And of course, accepting this hypothesis
leaves us with an age-old enigma to explain: "Just
how did all of Earth's land, continent sized chunks
of the ocean floor, get levitated above sea-level?"

There is sufficient evidence now available to unravel
the Earth's Real History. First we must set aside our
own predispositions, objectively weigh the meager
magnetic evidence available in the Earth's primeval
rocks, to ascertain the original site of the North
Magnetic Pole. And then geometrically chart and
interpret the lay of Earth's lands: And almost magically,
the chapters of early Earth History will begin to unfold.

"In-The-Beginning" the Earth was round and featureless, a
near-perfect sphere blanketed within an “Endless Ocean.”
Originally there were no continents, not even a jagged
mountain range rose above the sea to bask in the Sun, or
eternal darkness. The Endless Ocean was the Earth's only
feature for well over two billion years. Some volcanic
islands possibly emerged from the depths over such an eon,
but millions upon millions of years has eroded, all traces
of them, from our view.

The "Bible" states that originally: "Darkness lay upon the
face of the deep." And In-the-beginning total darkness did
cover half of the Earth. [And all land was buried deep
within a cold, dark ocean.] For the first nine-tenths of
Earth History the Earth only rotated but once a year
and was so synchronized with the Earth's orbit that the
sunny-side continuously faced the Sun, while the other
side lingered in eternal darkness.

The principle presented

in the above verbal enhancement is a greatly simplified
paradigm of the events that lifted the lands, we now call
continents, out of Earth's primitive Endless Ocean.

Our Earth now rotates once a day, once every twenty-four
hours. As it is more than 25,000 miles[40,225 kilometers]
around our planet at the Equator then, obviously
any given
on the Equator is moving in excess of 1,000 miles
[1,609 kilometers] per hour. The rotation of our Earth and
the fact that the atmosphere surrounding Earth follows the
surface of the rotating planet imperfectly, accounts for
the Prevailing Winds, and in one way or another instigates
nearly all of the severe weather changes, we now endure.

Such was not the case on the Primeval Earth, of eras
passed. With one hemisphere continuously facing the Sun,
almost perfect atmospheric conditions prevailed. Calm was
surely the order of the day. And that first day on the
"Sunny Hemisphere" lasted for more than three and a half
billion years, throughout the first nine-tenths of known
Earth History.

As sunshine relentlessly heated the central water and
atmosphere on the Sunny Hemisphere, the air continuously
expanded, lightened, and ascended as it warmed. And in so
doing directed a permanent centrifugal flow of the upper
atmosphere toward the outer edge of the Sunny Hemisphere,
toward the cold, dark side of the planet.

On the dark side of Primeval Earth a reversed scenario
unfolded. As the upper atmosphere descended below the sunny
horizon, the air cooled, contracted, grew heavy, and
descended to lower altitudes, where switching directions,
it flowed back across the surface of the water, to the
Sunny Hemisphere.

Subsequently, an almost perfect atmospheric circulating
system, was established. Wherein there were massive
quantities of warm, moist air in the upper atmosphere
flowing away from the Sunny Hemisphere to the cold, dark
side of Earth. Where cooling it dropped its moisture,
before returning cool and dry to the Sunny Hemisphere.

Throughout the billions of years that elapsed between, the
eon before Earth's first living-cell divided, until just
minutes before the last dinosaurs died, an atmospheric
circulation mode, basically as depicted, endured.

The Endless Ocean also circulated in a mode, very similar
to the way the atmosphere circulated. Great quantities of
water around the central section of the Sunny Hemisphere,
heated by the tireless  Sun’s rays expanded, became lighter,
and spread centrifugally over the more dense, heavier,
waters of the cold, Dark Hemisphere. And also like the
atmosphere, the frigid water of the Dark Hemisphere
steadily flowed back under the warmer water on the Sunny
Hemisphere. And thereby completed an almost perfect
oceanic circulating system, for primitive Earth.

But, massive clouds continuously formed on the Sunny Hemisphere.
In fact, clouds actually controlled the temperature on the Sunny
Hemisphere. And in so doing, undoubtedly accelerated the growth
of the Pacific Ice Cap, as it spread across the Dark Hemisphere.
To elucidate, the Sun shining continuously upon the waters of the
Sunny Hemisphere, steadily raised the temperature of that water,
until the waters reach a temperature where great quantities
of it evaporated.

With those great quantities of evaporated water, moisture
in the air, massive clouds formed to shade the water and reflect
the searing sunrays back into space. So shaded, the slowly circulating
water, cooling, would then begin to evaporate more
slowly. And thereby, generate less cloud cover, and again let
through more sunrays, which would again raise the temperature
of the water. In this way, clouds rigidly regulated the
temperature on the Sunny Hemisphere.

To reiterate, the primeval Earth had an almost perfect, atmospheric
circulating system. Except for the fact that the aforementioned
temperature-regulating phenomenon did not allow the Sunny Hemisphere
to absorb the massive quantities of heat that would have been
necessary to keep the Dark Hemisphere warm, above that temperature
at which water freezes. And so it was, that from In-the-beginning,
the temperature on the Dark Hemisphere steadily fell, and the ice
cap on the Dark Hemisphere steadily grew. Until eventually, ice
covered the entire area now encircled by, that which is often
referred to as, The Ring of Fire, until the Pacific Ice Cap
of the Dark Hemisphere became transpacific in scope.

As snow continued to fall upon the outer edge of the
Pacific Ice Cap, great quantities of it began to accumulate,
compress under its own weight, and form more ice. That ice,
as it grew thicker and thicker, by continued accretion,
became the first icebergs on Earth. As those bergs thickened,
they settled, deeper and deeper into the Endless Ocean. Until
eventually, the whole belt of ice, was but one long, endless
ice berg circling the globe and resting upon the ocean floor.
It may sound strange, but is nevertheless true, the ring
of volcanoes circling the Pacific Ocean, the so-called
"Ring of Fire" could have once far more appropriately
been dubbed, “The Ring of Ice.”

The warm moist atmosphere never intruded far over the frigid
Pacific Ice Cap. Over 90 percent of all the snow that fell on
Primitive Earth probably fell in a belt, seldom over a
thousand miles wide. And as that ring of ice grew higher and
higher above sealevel, it set heavier and heavier upon the
ocean floor. Until eventually the ever-thickening ice towered
thousands of feet above the surface of the Endless Ocean, and
spread, flowed at its base, under that great weight,
as all glaciers flow.

The ice-belt, oceanic glaciers, had faults, or cracks in
it where the various sections had settled and/or spread at
different rates. As the oceanic glaciers spread at their
bases, much that spread toward the Sunny Hemisphere
melted as it extended into the warm circulating water.
While the ice that spread into the frigid waters of the
Pacific Ocean melted much more slowly, and spread as weight
and time dictated. Hence, the Glacier Girdle was shaped
more like a right trapezium, with its most-perpendicular
side facing the Sun, than like an isosceles trapezoid, as
would a girdling glacier spreading evenly in both
directions, where everything on both sides were equal.

From the moment ice first touched the ocean floor, two
physical phenomena commenced functioning, that would
forever change the landless, Endless Ocean. As mentioned,
the Oceanic Glaciers flowed at their bases, much as
continental glaciers flow. Except that the “Glacier
Girdle” continued for many, many years to accumulate
snow, grow steadily heavier, and extend its base,
across the ocean floor. And as the Glacier Girdle spread,
it bulldozed great quantities of oceanic sediment along
ahead of the moving ice.

The second, and most important, phenomenon to commence
functioning was that, as ice set upon the subterraneously
heated ocean floor, it melted. The resulting water under
the oceanic glaciers was under an unbelievable pressure,
thousands of pounds per square inch. And as it vented,
it carried with it, not only any sediment that the
bulldozing action of the spreading Glacier Girdle had
missed, but also continuously washed out, eroded, tiny
granules of the crust from under the Glacier Girdle.

The first land to break the surface of the Endless Ocean
was a blend of the aforementioned sediment bulldozed up by
the Glacier Girdle and minute particles of primeval crust,
washed from under the glaciers. In the twilight of the
Sunny Hemisphere, many small islands, always dwarfed by
the massive oceanic glaciers they paralleled, were pushed
above the surface of the Endless Ocean, only to be washed
away, again and again. And the tiny islands that appeared
and vanished with such regularity were but surface hints,
of the mighty, endless mountain range that steadily grew,
beneath the surface of the Endless Ocean, at the
foot of the Glacier Girdle.

The tiny portions of the oceanic crust washed from under
the Glacier Girdle, and the original oceanic sediment was
for the most part, very fine grained, predominantly
microscopic particles. And much of it, once disturbed, was
carried away by circulating ocean currents, and deposited
far from the Glacier Girdle, was spread across the Sunny
Hemisphere. And so, the most primitive strata, resulting
solely from terrestrial phenomena, were deposited.
Strata, for the most part consisting of fine-grained sand,
deposited upon the most primitive strata pays mute evidence
to the endless mountain range, which paralleled the Glacier
Girdle. For that fine-grained sand was the product, of
phenomena relative to that mountain range which
circled the Earth.

In spite of the fact that the endless mountain range that
ringed the Earth, was in a climatic zone where it rained
or/and snowed, continuously, it slowly but steadily emerged
from the Endless Ocean. Until eventually, it became a
permanent divider, an unbroken mountain ring, between the
frigid water of the Pacific Ocean, and the warm inviting
waters of the Sunny Hemisphere. And in accord with “Genesis”
account of creation, the Earth’s waters were parted.
And the endless ocean was, no more.

Late Precambrian sedimentary rocks accumulated to
thicknesses up to 50,000 feet in the basin shown here.
Comparison with other maps in this chapter shows that
younger structural elements cut across this trough.
The location of this trough was reconstructed from
extensive outcrops in the northern Rocky Mountains,
and scattered outcrops in Arizona and Nevada. Other
Precambrian sedimentary rocks are found in the oldest
parts of the geosynclines. The western boundary of
this basin is less well known than the eastern.
End of Caption

[Copied from the net: Dated:9/2002.
“A Millennium of Geomagnetism”
By: David P. Stern,
Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt,Md.

This is a copy of the original map made by [James
Heirtzler, 1968] showing zebra stripes on the
Reykjanes Ridge, South of Iceland. As anyone
can see, this is  not an exact record of anything.
And this chart was hand painted by people trying
to prove Continental Drift. Any claims about zebra
strips extending on across the ocean floors are
100% pure malarkey.  
This picture is of a model
of early Earth
and the Glacier
Girdle. The Glacier Girdle was
positioned on the model,
according to the present edges
of the Pacific Ocean. So, it
should be a reasonably true
representation of the
Mid-Amphibian Era. Of course
the Southern slope of the
Glacier Girdle facing the
Sunny Hemisphere, was the only
facet of the glaciers to ever
even receive twilight.
Direct sunlight may have
melted some ice, during
the springs and summers,
which undoubtedly accumulated
every winter, near Poles.  

Copied from General Geology,
chapter, “Continental Drift,”
by Robert J. Foster. Copyright 1969,
by Charles E. Merrill Publishing Company, Columbus, Ohio.

The earth’s magnetic field is believed to originate from electric
currents in the core. It is a well-known law in physics that a
moving current creates a magnetic field, and conversely, a current
is induced into a conductor moving in a magnetic field. Electrical
currents in the core could start in a number of ways, such as
through a weak battery action caused by compositional differences.
Once started, these currents could be amplified by a dynamo action
in the Earth’s core.

A dynamo produces electric current by moving a conductor in a
magnetic field. In the earth the core is the conductor, and
because it is fluid, it can move. The mechanism envisioned is
similar to a dynamo, which produces an electric current, and
this current is fed to an electric motor that drives the dynamo.

Friction and electrical resistance would prevent such a perpetual
motion machine from continuing to operate unless more energy is
added. In the earth this additional energy can come from movement
of the fluid core. Calculation shows that very little additional
energy needs to be added in the case of the earth; and the
necessary energy for core motion, probably in the form of
convection, could come from many sources.

Thus a current is somehow started in the Earth’s core, and this
current produces a magnetic field.  The conducting core moves
through the magnetic field, and a current is induced in this
part of the core, starting the whole process over.

In a stationary earth, the movements of the core would probably
be more or less random and the magnetic fields produced would
probably cancel each other. The rotation of the earth tends to
orient the motions of the core so that the motions and,
therefore, the currents are in planes perpendicular to the
rotational axis, Viewed
from outside the earth, the overall current produced would
be parallel to latitudes. Such currents produce a dipole
magnetic field red on the rotational axis.

A field produced in this way would have all of the
characteristics of the Earth’s magnetic field. The main field
would be a dipole field; superimposed on this would be other
fields caused by variations in the core’s motion. This can
account for the variations in intensity and location of the
Earth’s field. The Earth’s dipole field does not coincide
with its rotational axis, however, as this theory predicts,
although if averaged over a long enough period, the dipole
field would perhaps appear centered on the rotational axis.
The positions of the magnetic pole deduced from remanent
magnetism of Pleistocene and younger rocks cluster around
the rotational axis, suggesting that this is true. The
present [in 1969] dipole field is 11.5 degrees from the
rotational axis and lies northwest of Greenland, some
distance from the magnetic north pole, north of Canada.
End of copied Material.

If one side of the Earth faced the Sun for the
first nine-tenths of Earth History, then we can
forget about claims that the Earth’s Magnetic Field
is somehow mysteriously generated inside the Earth.
Scientists believed, until the Mariner 10 Space
Craft proved them wrong, that Mercury could not have
a magnetic field, because it revolved too slowly.
They thought until about 1965 that one side of
Mercury always faced the Sun. Actually, Mercury
revolves around the Sun every 88 days, and rotates
once every 58.6 days. It rotates three times, while
orbiting twice around the Sun.

I never did believe that malarkey, about the Earth’s
Core being a dynamo anyway, it sounded too much like
Venus, to me.  I guess though, when you already have
a Continent-Eater inside the Earth, conjuring up a
dynamo, and the power to energize it,
are small potatoes.

The following is a lame attempt to explain Mercury’s
Magnetic Field. The paragraph below is copied from:

“The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences”
Chapter 37,“The geology of the solar system,”
Published jointly by: Crown Publishers Inc. One Park Avenue,
New York N.Y. & Cambridge University Press,
32 East 57 Street, New York, N. Y.

Mercury’s magnetic field.
The Mariner 10 spacecraft revealed that Mercury has a
magnetic field with an intensity of only about 1/100 that of
the Earth, with north and south poles closely aligned with
the rotational axis. This discovery was not anticipated because
it was considered that Mercury’s slow period of rotation would
preclude the operation of a geomagnetic dynamo similar to the
Earth’s. As suggested in the case of the Moon’s field it is
possible that Mercury’s magnetic field is essentially a fossil
one acquired early in its history and never subsequently lost.
Since Mercury is so close to the Sun it seems almost certain
that it must have been affected by the Sun’s powerful field.
End of copied material.

All of the magnetic fields that I know of, and
understand, were initiated by electric energy. You
can magnetize a screwdriver by simply wrapping an
insulated wire around it a half dozen times, and
arcing [momentarily touching the positive and
negative anodes with the ends of the wire] on a
twelve-volt battery. Logically, we should expect
that the driving forces that maintain the Earth’s
Magnetic Field should be just as easily explained.
Granted, the Earth's Magnetic Field is a whole lot
larger than the magnetic field surrounding the end
of a screwdriver. But the principle, and the
'laws of physics' that account for their existence,
are exactly the same.

The odds greatly favor the probability that the
driving force behind the Earth’s Magnetic Field
arrives on Earth via the Solar Wind, or at least,
along with the Solar Wind. More than 99 percent of
all energy in the entire Solar System, originates
in/on the Sun.

Electricity does not like heat.
Or rather, heat increases resistance to the flow of
electricity, in any material. For example, the hotter
an electrical wire is, the less amperage it will
carry. Actually, the very thought of moving
electricity though anything, as hot as the center of
the Earth, much less generating electricity in that
environment, is preposterous. Any electrical energy
emitted by the Sun, and attracted to the Earth’s mass,
would move through the cool upper strata, circling
the Earth’s melted interior and hot core.

In all probability, the Earth’s Magnetic Field is
powered by electrical energy emitted by the Sun.
This atomically generated electrical energy is
probably nearer akin to static electricity than
any other known form of energy. Think of this
energy being constantly, lightly sprinkled on the
side of Earth facing the Sun, like some slow, steady
electrical rain.

But this electricity does not spread, or run around
the Earth at the speed of light, like electricity
in a power-line. It accumulates in receptive areas
until it accrues enough charge, to motivate it moving
onto an adjacent area with a lesser charge. There it
charges until it has enough charge to move on again,
and so on, and on, until it has circled the Earth.

Before the Earth started turning once a day as it does
now, electrical energy which was attracted to the
Earth’s mass, moved from the Sunny Hemisphere around
the Earth and was eventually emitted from that point
on Earth which was furthest from the Sun, back out
into the Solar Wind.

Later, when the Earth’s Magnetic Field began to
materialize that point become the North Magnetic Pole.
This consent movement of electricity from the vicinity
of what became the South Magnetic Pole, to the North
Magnetic Pole instigated, oriented and maintained the
Earth’s primeval Magnetic Field. This explains why the
locations of the primeval magnetic poles, were those
two points on Earth, which were the closest, and the
furthest, from the Sun.

Once the Earth started to spin, most of the electrical
rain descended, like the Sun’s life-sustaining rays,
on the equatorial regions. Very little to none reach
the North or South Rotational Axis Poles. Therefore,
the receptive areas in the equatorial region began
to bleed off their charges to those areas that were
closer to the Rotational Axis Poles. Soon energy from
the equatorial regions, around the World began to
migrate toward the Rotational Axis Poles. Once aid
flow of energy became established, it redirected the
Earth’s Magnetic Field, aligning it with
the Earth’s Rotational Axis.

Why the North Rotational Axis Pole, also became the
North Magnetic Pole is a little harder to explain.
With all things being equal, the South Rotational
Axis Pole had a fifty-fifty chance of becoming the
North Magnetic Pole. There are those who claim that
the North and South Rotational Axis Poles divide up
the honor of hosting the North Magnetic Pole. They
maintain that the positive and negative magnetic
poles, switch places periodically, kind of similar
to alternating current.

As previously addressed, the theory of the poles
switching, more than a hundred times, sounds like a
vacuous deduction, to me. It was made up by the same
people that deduced the continents on this Earth are
floating around like so many rafts in a hurricane.

It does appear that the North Magnetic Pole could
be at/near the North Rotational Axis Pole, just by
chance. It is also possible that because of the larger
landmasses in the Northern Hemisphere, it attracted
more electrical energy than the Southern Hemisphere,
and therefore, became sated and began to emit energy
back into the jet stream, first.

Once the flow of electrical energy from the North
Hemisphere started, the energy south of the Equator
would have followed, and set the stage to redirect
the Earth’s Magnetic Field, and align it with the
Northern Axis Pole.

Whether the Earth’s Magnetic Field maintained its
integrity, while it rotated ninety degrees to align
with the Earth’s Rotational Poles, or was
extinguished when the Earth suddenly started to spin,
and regenerated, and aligned with the Rotational
Poles, is a real poser. Whichever scenario is true,
the realignment undoubtedly took place in a month or
so, likely in matter of days. On a geological time
scale, that is a blink of an eye. Not nearly time
enough, to expect that any appreciable evidences
would ever be found under normal circumstances, to
shed any light on the event. But the Dinosaur Era
ended during the most catastrophic event the
continents on this Earth have ever suffered, so
there may be some evidence surface indicating how
the Earth’s Magnetic Field reacted during these
violent times. There is no doubt that erupting
volcanoes, magma flows and many horrific earthquakes
marked the time.

Remember: On a globe; I drew two circles,
covering the Pacific Ocean, then drew a common
bisector across where those circles overlapped, to
find the original location of the Earth’s Equator.
Finding the center of that segment of the equatorial
line, gave me the point on Earth furthest from the
Sun, and I then drew a perpendicular line through
that point. It was a simple matter then to extend the
Equator, and the perpendicular line, on around the
globe. At that point where the perpendicular
line re-crossed the Equator, was the center of the
Sunny Hemisphere. Said perpendicular line also
bisected the Earth, and the two points furthest from
the Equator on that bisector, marked the sites of the
original Rotational Axis Poles.

The above was reiterated to establish that the two
points on Earth, which are furthest from and nearest
to the Sun, the sites of the original North and South
Magnetic Poles, and the sites of the North and South
Rotational Axis Poles, were objectively located, by
geometric calculation.

That point is important. Because if we chart the
movement of the North Magnetic Pole, from the original
site on the Equator in the middle of the Pacific Ocean,
to the original site of the Rotational Axis Pole, and
then to the present Rotational Axis Pole, it parallels
the route scientists charted via paleomagnetic studies

Copied from Introduction to Geology,
Copyright 1968, by Prentice-Hall
Inc.Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

[Cox's Statement]

Paleomagnetic measurements
of rocks from North America
and Europe show the paths
followed by the magnetic
poles of these two
continents from Precambrian
times to the present.
[Redrawn from Cox and Doell]
End of Copied text.

Prior to Cox and Crew's first map
advocating Continental Drift, the Scientific Community
were in agreement that the North Magnetic Pole had
remained stationary throughout the first nine-tenths
of Earth History. Cox had the lines in his drawing meet
at the original site of the North Magnetic Pole,
because the result of many field studies designated the
site, as the location of the original North Magnetic
Pole. Cox and Crew claimed to have found rocks,
somewhere, with the proper remanent magnetism, which
warranted drawing such a map. As far as is known no
attempt was ever made to verify their research.

Copied from “Physical Geology,”
copyright 1969, by John Wiley &
Sons Inc. New York, London, Sidney.

Curves that trace the inferred
path followed by the North
Magnetic Pole through time,
based on paleomagnetic
measurements in North America
(blue curve) and Europe (black
curve). After Eocene time the
two curves merge.

(After Northrop and Meyerhoff,
1963 based on Cox and Doell, 1960.)
End of copied text

Please note, how the location of the North American
and European paths, have been switched on these maps.
The “Introduction to geology” map has the American
path on the inside, as the paths converge.
On this map from the:
“Physical Geology,”
forth edition, copyright 1971,by Prentice-Hall Inc.
Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey
It is on the outside. A sceptic might wonder if
they may have intentionally switched the paths
so they could add the following paragraph.
Copied notation, concerning this map.

Polar wandering support’s continental drift.
The most logical explanation is based on the
interpretation that Earth’s magnetic field has
remained an axial dipole and that only one
north magnetic pole existed. The divergence in
reconstructed positions of this pole could have
resulted from progressive drift of the two
continents away from each other. Ancient pole
positions reconstructed from the two continents
can be made to coincide closely if drift is
assumed and if the continents are moved back
to the positions they are thought to have occupied
before the drift began.
End of copied text.

I read a story a couple or three years ago,
about the end of the Dinosaur Era. It came complete
with an artist’s conception of a duck billed dinosaur
watching a comet falling from the sky. The story
related how a strange light appeared in the sky, which
steadily grew brighter and brighter until it illuminated
the night skies and paled the Moon with its brilliance
as it entered the Earth’s atmosphere.

They estimated that on its final plunge to Earth, for
a few minutes the comet brilliance, and the heat it
emitted, far exceeded that of the Sun. The story went
on to explain, how the comet on smashing into the Earth,
belched up this gigantic cloud of dust and debris. Which
in turn, spread over the Earth, blocked Sun’s rays, and
fostered the frigid ice age, that exterminated
the dinosaurs.

There have been a hundred of versions, of the above story,
published. The theory has been so thoroughly accepted
by the scientific community that millions of children
around the world have shamefully been taught: It is the
reason the dinosaurs became extinct. There is no greater
sin in education than presenting some hyped theory to
children, as a scientifically proven phenomenon.

Knowledge ceases to grow in minds
that have accepted false answers.

The above story was not related because of any
probability  that it may be true. There are far too
few clues supporting the theory, to give it any real
credence. Yet the story of the comets approach does
clearly allegorize the actual phenomenon that brought
about the dinosaur’s extinction.

But the ever-brightening light that approached Earth
was not a comet, and it could not have possibly paled
the Moon with its brilliance. The approaching light was
the Moon. And it passed so near to Earth that its
gravitational pull sped up the Earth’s rotation. The earth
accelerated from rotating once a year, to rotating once
every day, once every twenty-four hours. No Dinosaurs
survived the catastrophic event.

The “Dinosaur Era” was over.

The Emce, Earth/Moon close encounter wreaked incredible
havoc upon the Earth, and never left the Moon unscathed.
The Moon has a diameter of 2,160 miles,
equal to about
one-quarter of 7,926.4 miles, the Earth’s diameter at the
equator. As it rushed Earth on its original orbit, the
Moon was probably traveling at a rate exceeding
40,000 miles per hour.

The Moon’s mean distance from the Earth is reportedly
238,857 miles
. The orbit is quite elliptical, varying
more than 30,000 miles, from a perigee of 216,420 miles,
to 247,667 miles at their apogee.
The Moon covers about
716,568 miles in 27 days, 7 hours, 43 minutes and a
second or so, to orbit the Earth. So, the Moon is now
circling the Earth at an average speed of about
26,248 miles per hour.

The distance the Moon missed colliding with Earth is very
problematic. But there undoubtedly were many catastrophic
phenomena instigated by the emce. Still, it is all vary iffy.
There are too many variables: The distance that separated
the Earth and the Moon on their first, nearest perigee, and
the rate the Moon was traveling, relative to Earth, on its
first pass by Earth, is crucial questions. But only time, and
a great deal of tedious research, can ever blueprint-exactly
how, when, or where, all those horrific events unfolded.

That said: In my mind’s eye, the following paragraphs
fairly accurately describe some of the Earth-shaking
phenomena the emce likely triggered.
[pronounced emcee]

As the Moon passed by Earth, Lunar Gravity attracted the
Earth’s atmosphere, creating a huge atmospheric bulge, which
raced around the Earth, following the Moon, as it arced,
around the Earth. This movement of the atmosphere generated
winds with velocities far exceeding any, the primeval,
placid Earth had theretofore experienced. Winds, which
uprooted, leveled, and killed nearly everything  in the
storm’s path. Wherever the moon passed over land it left
a horrific path of total devastation in its wake.

As the Moon passed over water, the same winds  that wreaked
havoc on land, created mighty storm  surges, which flooded
any coasts they encountered.  The winds racing along with the
Moon, at hundreds of  miles per hour, undoubtedly scooped up
water and carried it thousands of feet up into the air. If
any traces of water are ever found on the Moon,
we could
learn that the Moon acquired it water during the emce. As
the Earth's rotation accelerated rapidly, the water
failed to keep pace, and all water on Earth flowed in a
westerly direction. Actually the waters, South of the
Equator was slung to the Southwest, while the waters North
of the Equator moved Northwest. This water gathered speed
and volume as it race for the Polar Axis, and met in a
horrific collision water, ice and debris.

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Imagine an aqueous planet with an
orbit and rotation so synchronized
that one hemisphere continuously
faced its Sun, while the other
remained frozen,
frozen, in
continuous darkness.
Now Imagine that ice begins to form
on the cold, dark side of this
Compared to Earth the water and ice shown here are
exaggerated by hundreds and are portrayed only
for theoretical clarification.
Eventually on such a planet the
accreting ice would so shift the
center of gravity, that land,
the ocean floor, would divinely
emerge from the abyss to bask
in eternal sunlight.
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Hughes motto
'Y Gwir Yn Erbyn Y
(That's Welsh)
['The truth against
the world']
This motto is carved on fireplaces in the
Hughes' old family home at Donnington
Priory, Newbury, Berkshire, in
Southern England.

About two-thirds of the Earths surface
is covered with water, and centrifugal force drew those
waters that had been racing toward the Axial Poles,
while the rotation of the Earth was accelerating,
rushing back toward the equatorial regions. And it
was not  only, the quantity of water that was
previously at the Equator, which rushed back to
the region. Centrifugal force contributed somewhere
close to another 45 feet, (15 meters) of water
to the equatorial regions.

Simply put, water like the aforementioned man, weighed
less at the Equator than at the poles, and rose
proportionately to compensate for the waters that grew
heavier toward the Axial Poles. Diminishing, flood
and ebb tides continued to ravage the Earth’s coasts
for a week after the emce phenomenon. A short time
compared to the atmosphere, which failed to accelerate
sufficiently to obtain any real stability for months.

For the first week following the Moons passing, east
winds far in excess of a hundred miles per hour buffeted
the whole equatorial region. The lower atmosphere took
months to accelerate sufficiently, for the winds to
establish any semblance of wind patterns, similar
to those we have today.

Ten years after the Moon's first pass by Earth, as it
passed perigee it was still creating tides two or three
times as formidable as any suffered on Earth today. On
the up side a full moon during a perigee, obliterated
the stars from the night skies and illuminated the
night nearly as light as day. A hundred years after
emce, at a perigee, the Moon probably only appeared
twice as large, than it does presently. The more oval
the Moon’s orbit was, the quicker it stabilized
into a more circular orbit.

For example, most of the change that occurred in the
Moon’s orbit during the first ten years, actually took
place in the first year, of that ten-year period. Like
wise, most of the change in the Moon’s orbit which
occurred in the first hundred years, took place during
the first ten years of  that period, and so on. A
thousand years after emce, the Moon, at its perigee,
likely only appeared to be a couple times larger,
than our Harvest Moon does now on a clear night.

The centrifugal force generated by the whirling
Earth after emce, threw our world drastically out
of kinetic balance, and instigated many untenable pressure
changes on the Earth’s crust. Indubitably, such a sudden,
drastic, geological adjustment triggered innumerable
earthquakes, and brought on a rash of volcanic activity.

Instability of the Earth’s crust was further heightened, and
prolonged for many years, as the Glacier Girdle melted, and the
coasts of the Pacific Ocean, released from the burden of the
glaciers great weight, began to decompress, began to rebound.
It is a bit hard to comprehend how much solid rock can be
compressed, and rebound, when subjected to and then released
from a great weight.  For example, the land around the great
lakes is still rebounding, rising, from the compression it
underwent, during the last Ice age.

Comparatively speaking, since the Glacier Girdle began melting,
we could guess that the compressed rock under it has probably
expanded hundreds of feet. But there is little data available
to support such a hypothesis. Gravity tests do confirm that
the area under the Ring-of-Fire, the area which was under
the Glacier Girdle, is still heavier, is still more compressed,
than the strata in the adjacent areas. We do know that areas,
such as the Great Lakes area, do rebound after being
compressed with glaciers.

But our knowledge of how much, or how quickly rock formations
will compress, or rebound, is very scant. Different types
of rock formations probably compress and rebound, at
different rates, and in varying degrees. For now, just
saying the formations once covered and compressed by the
Glacier Girdle, have rebounded a significant amount, and
are still expanding is about all we dare declare.

Actually a phenomenon of much greater consequence than the
strata under the Glacier Girdle decompressing was initiated
when the edges of the crustal plates, which had been tilted
down by the awesome weight of the Glacier Girdle, begin to
rise, to level. The edges, of both the oceanic and
continental crustal plates that meet at the Pacific Ocean
shores began to rise.

The tilting of these oceanic and crustal plates
activated numerous earth quakes and a string of volcanic
activity that circled the Pacific Ocean, and ignited the so
called, “Ring-of-Fire.” Proof that crustal plates move, tilt
very slowly, lies in the fact that the volcanic activity and
accompanying earthquakes which encircle the Pacific Ocean,
are still very active.

Simply put, shortly after emce the atmosphere stabilized and
cleared sufficiently, to enable the Sun to commence thawing
the Glacier Girdle. As the Glacier Girdle melted, the edges of
the adjacent crustal plates, relieved of their great burden
of ice, began to rise. Actually gravity began to slowly re-level
the plates and the aforementioned edges have risen continuously
until this day. And they are presently still leveling at a rate
sufficient to maintain a very active Ring-of-Fire. The lifting
of the oceanic and continental plates where they meet at the
shores of the Pacific Ocean are also responsible for creating
the deep oceanic trenches.

Obviously, the Earth’s Crust cracked, for the most part, on
the oceanic side of the Glacier Girdle, in the Western Pacific,
and on the continental side of the Glacier Girdle, on the
Eastern, or North and South American side, of the Pacific. The
oceanic trenches were not created by any mysterious,
unfathomable force, by any Devil residing deep within the
bowels of the Earth. They have simply opened, as the edges
of the crustal plates have risen.

Before man made his first trip to the Moon, scientists estimated
that the astronauts would find the Moon carpeted with from 6
to 15 feet [2 to 5 meters] of dust. They of course, made that
assumption assuming that the Moon had been a companion of
Earth for the last four or five billion years.

According to our best radiometric tests, the Moon has been
around somewhere, and most likely somewhere in our Solar System,
for at least close to four billion years. That is time enough
to gather a lot of dust, dust that for the most part blew off
of the Moon, during emce. This Moon dust is what is responsible
for the thin layer of iridium rich dust deposited at the
K-T Boundary.

Much of the Glacier Girdle
likely survived the emce with little, if any, modification.
It does appear the Glacier Girdle was probably breeched
between the  Philippines and Antarctica.  Australia and
the lands between those two sites appear to have been
inundated with giant tsunamis that leveled the lands,
and left great mountains of Pacific Ocean Ice in their wake.

The face of the Earth between those two points was so
modified, that it is hard to even tell exactly where
the Glacier Girdle, or the lands, excepting Australia,
were prior to emce. There is little doubt that for a
hundred years after emce there were glaciers and great
piles of ice at sea level, in the equatorial regions.

In the Temperate Zones, sections of the Glacier Girdle
lasted a great deal longer, lingering for hundreds of
years. And undoubtedly, would have lasted even longer,
perhaps thousands of years in the northern regions, had
it not be exposed to the currents of the Pacific Ocean,
which were steadily growing warmer.

Many land animals survived emce, and lingered for years,
only to slowly die off, and become extinct, simply
because they failed to discover a niche, in which they
could prosper. And/or because they could not adapt
sufficiently, or evolve quickly enough to make them
selves a place on the startling new World they now
faced. Those animals, which did survive, underwent an
extended period of accelerated evolution that stocked
our Earth with a wide variety of strange new animals,
which differed mightily from their predecessors. If
you could totally objectively examine a randomly
selected group of land animal fossils that lived before
emce, and a similar group of fossils that lived since
emce, you might, mistakenly, determine that you were
examining fossils from two different worlds.

Scientists have never even addressed, let alone explain,
what could have so thoroughly redirected the course of
evolution. There is one indubitable fact: No little bump
in the side, or even an ice age on Earth, could have
possibly so radically redirected evolution. Only a
dramatic, permanent change in the Earth’s environment
could have instigated such an abrupt, permanent change
in the course of evolution.

In the Temperate Zones, sections of the Glacier Girdle
lasted a great deal longer, lingering for hundreds of
years. And undoubtedly, would have lasted even longer,
perhaps thousands of years in the northern regions, had
it not be exposed to the currents of the Pacific Ocean,
which were steadily growing warmer.

Marine species fared no better during emce than
land animals. Like some land animals, quite a few marine
species may have survived for some time, perhaps even
scores of years, while their numbers steadily dwindled,
before their species finally became extinct. During
the emce, and during the next couple or three years that
it took for the atmosphere to stabilize sufficiently
to maintain permanently warm Edens along the equator,
nearly 90% of all marine species became extinct.

Which is quite comparable to about 85% of the land
animal species that became extinct, during the same
period. In the end, a total of about 15% of the marine
families, and 25% of all land animal families were
completely exterminated. Scientists claimed for many
years, that no animal over thirty pounds survived
the “comet” that supposedly happened here on Earth.
They have fudged a little during the last ten years
or fifteen years and now, most scientists believe
that the largest animals that survived the K-T event
weighed around fifty pound.

When we think of extinctions, the awe inspiring
dinosaurs,  and perhaps those ancient horrifying
monsters of the depths that shared their world,
usually are the first creatures that light up our
minds. But the emce also exterminated about half the
groups of tiny Cretaceous plankton, as well as many
families of snails, sponges, bivalves, bony fishes and
some families of mammals and birds. And that only names
some of the faunas [animal life]that become extinct.

The rest of the story is: That about half of all species
of land and marine floras, [plant life] also became
extinct during, or shortly after emce. It is highly
probable, that many species of the life that flourished
during the Cretaceous, only to became extinct due to the
emce phenomenon, would have survived, had the Earth
returned to a Cretaceous like environment, after the event.

Permanent catastrophic changes in the Earths environment,
is the real reason for the mass extinction. In plain language,
had half of the dinosaurs living at the end of the Cretaceous
Era survived the emce event, they all would have still
inevitably, and quickly, became extinct.

Simply put: Cretaceous Dinosaurs
would have had a better chance of surviving in the proverbial
Hell, than they had living on the new world the emce created.
Catastrophic changes in the Earths environment is truly the
mother of all mass extinctions, as well as accelerated
periods of evolution.

The marine environment, life in what had been the sunlit
oceans, suffered as devastating an upheaval as that suffered
by the land inhabitants.  During and for some time
following emce, only the strong and lucky survived.

Just how much ice and waters of the frozen Pacific Ocean and
the warm waters of Sunny Hemisphere were merged during emce
will never be known. But undoubtedly a sufficient quantity,
was sloshed together during the first day, to bring about
a mass oceanic extinction. Eventually as the dust had settled,
and the Sun grew warm, the Glacier Girdle began to melt, and
the waters of the World’s oceans continued to merged and
began to circulate.

The oceans on the Sunny Hemisphere throughout the Dinosaur
Era were filled with warm, quite salty, mineral rich, water,
compared to the frigid Pacific. Such was the water, in which
the marine life of the Cretaceous had evolved and flourished.

Once the Glacier Girdle was breeched, and the oceans began
to circulate, the heavy, cold, comparatively inert, water
from the Pacific Ocean slipped under the warm waters of the
Sunlit Ocean and filled the ocean basins with frigid water.
Probably within days, in a few weeks at most, the ocean
depths of the Indian and Atlantic Oceans fell from a warm
60 or 70 degrees Fahrenheit, [16 to 21 degrees Celsius] to
near freezing temperatures.

Warm Atlantic and Indian Ocean water, teeming with life and
spores was lifted, as the cold water filled the ocean
basins, and spread out over the frigid Pacific Ocean water,
and planted ancient flora and fauna onto many of the
Pacific's warm, active, seamounts.

The water in both the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, below a
few hundred feet, simply became uninhabitable to most of the
flora or fauna that had evolved in the Cretaceous. As the
months and years passed and the oceans’ waters continued
to merge, marine life on Earth had but two choices, evolve
and adapt, or become extinct. Both on land and in the sea,
accelerated evolution soon adapted or replaced that which
was, with that which is, and the Dinosaur Era was over.

The Mammal Era had arrived.

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